Description of the active substance:
This information is a reference and it is not enough that the drug has been prescribed by a doctor ..
An antiviral agent. Quickly penetrates into the cells and acts inside the virus-infected cells. Intracellularly, ribavirin is readily phosphorylated by adenosine kinase to mono-, di- and triphosphate metabolites. Ribavirin triphosphate is a strong competitive inhibitor of inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase, RNA polymerase of influenza virus and guanylyl transferase of information RNA, the latter being manifested by inhibition of the coating process by the RNA-envelope. These various effects lead to a significant decrease in the amount of intracellular guanosine triphosphate, as well as suppression of the synthesis of viral RNA and protein. Ribavirin inhibits the replication of new virions, which reduces viral load, selectively inhibits the synthesis of viral RNA, without suppressing the synthesis of RNA in normally functioning cells.
It is most active against DNA viruses - respiratory syncytial virus, Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, adenoviruses, CMV, smallpox viruses, Marek's disease; RNA viruses - influenza A, B viruses, paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza, mumps, Newcastle disease), reoviruses, arenaviruses (Lassa fever virus, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever), bunyaviruses (Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), hantaviruses (hemorrhagic fever virus with renal or pulmonary syndrome) paramyxoviruses, oncogenic RNA viruses.
When treating hemorrhagic fever with kidney syndrome reduces the severity of the disease, reduces the duration of symptoms (fever, oliguria, pain in the lumbar region, abdomen, headache), improves laboratory indicators of kidney function, reduces the risk of hemorrhagic complications and an unfavorable outcome of the disease.
Ribavirin is not sensitive to DNA viruses - Varicella zoster, pseudorabies virus, natural cowpox; RNA viruses - enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, encephalitis virus of the forest Semliki.
For oral administration: treatment of chronic hepatitis C in adults (in combination with interferon alpha-2b or peginterferon alfa-2b).
Parenteral: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
External in the form of monotherapy or in combination with other medicinal forms of ribavirin for ingestion and parenteral administration: infections of the skin and mucous membranes caused by Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 types, various localization, incl. in the genital area; herpes zoster (as part of complex therapy).
Individual, depending on the indications, age, scheme of application, dosage form.
From the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: headache, dizziness, general weakness, malaise, insomnia, asthenia, depression, irritability, anxiety, emotional lability, nervousness, agitation, aggressive behavior, confused consciousness; rarely - suicidal tendencies, increased smooth muscle tone, tremor, paresthesia, hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia, fainting.
From the cardiovascular system: a decrease or increase in blood pressure, brady or tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrest.
From the hemopoiesis: hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia; extremely rare - aplastic anemia.
On the part of the respiratory system: dyspnoea, cough, pharyngitis, dyspnea, bronchitis, otitis media, sinusitis, rhinitis.
On the part of the digestive system: dry mouth, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, taste distortion, pancreatitis, flatulence, stomatitis, glossitis, gum bleeding, hyperbilirubinemia.
From the sense organs: lesions of the lacrimal gland, conjunctivitis, visual impairment, hearing loss / loss, tinnitus.
From the musculoskeletal system: arthralgia, myalgia.
On the part of the genitourinary system: hot flashes, decreased libido, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, menorrhagia, prostatitis.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, erythema, urticaria, hyperthermia, angioedema, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, photosensitivity, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis; when in / in the introduction - chills.
Local reactions: pain at the injection site.
Other: hair loss, alopecia, hair structure disorder, dry skin, hypothyroidism, chest pain, thirst, fungal infection, viral infection (including herpes), flu-like syndrome, sweating, lymphadenopathy. Medical workers who perform inhalation administration may have headache, itching, eye hyperemia or puffiness of the eyelids.
Chronic heart failure IIB-III stage, myocardial infarction, renal failure (QC less than 50 ml / min), severe anemia, severe hepatic insufficiency, decompensated liver cirrhosis, autoimmune diseases (including autoimmune hepatitis), intractable thyroid disease glands, severe depression with suicidal tendencies, children and adolescents under 18, pregnancy, lactation, hypersensitivity to ribavirin.
PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
Ribavirin is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding).
APPLICATION FOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
Contraindicated in renal failure (CK less than 50 ml / min).
APPLICATION FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE FUNCTION OF KIDNEYS
Contraindicated in severe hepatic insufficiency, decompensated liver cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis.
APPLICATION FOR CHILDREN
Contraindicated in children and adolescents under 18 years.
Use only in a hospital with a specialized resuscitation department. The use of ribavirin in patients who require mechanical ventilation is possible only by specialists with experience in resuscitation.
To be used with caution in women of reproductive age (the onset of pregnancy is undesirable), in patients with decompensated diabetes mellitus (with ketoacidosis attacks), with COPD, pulmonary embolism, chronic heart failure, thyroid disease (including thyrotoxicosis), with blood clotting disorders, with thrombophlebitis, myelodepression, hemoglobinopathy (including thalassemia, sickle cell anemia), depression, suicidal tendencies (including in history), HIV-related co-infection (combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy - risk of lactic acidosis), in elderly patients.
Medical personnel using ribavirin should take into account its teratogenicity.
The possibility of a drug or other interaction with ribavirin may persist for up to two months (5 cycles of T 1/2 ribavirin) after discontinuation of its use due to delayed excretion.
With simultaneous use with interferons, therapeutic effectiveness is increased.
With simultaneous use with ribavirin, a decrease in the effectiveness of stavudine and zidovudine is possible.