This information is a reference and it is not enough that the drug was prescribed by a doctor. .
Combined drug, the effect of which is determined by the properties of its constituent fat-soluble vitamins A and E.
Retinol (vitamin A) is a necessary component for the normal function of the retina of the eye: when it binds to opsin (the red pigment of the reticular membrane), it forms the visual purple rhodopsin necessary for visual adaptation in the dark. Vitamin A is essential for bone growth, normal reproductive function, embryonic development, for regulation of epithelial division and differentiation (enhances the reproduction of skin epithelial cells, rejuvenates the cellular population, inhibits keratinization processes). Vitamin A takes part as a cofactor in various biochemical processes.
The function of? -tocopherol (vitamin E) remains unclear until the end. As an antioxidant, inhibits the development of free radical reactions, prevents the formation of peroxides that damage cellular and subcellular membranes, which is important for the development of the body, the normal function of the nervous and muscular systems. Together with selenium, it inhibits the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (a component of the microsomal electron transfer system), prevents the hemolysis of erythrocytes. It is a cofactor of some enzyme systems. It restores capillary circulation, normalizes capillary and tissue permeability, increases tissue resistance to hypoxia.
Hypo-and avitaminosis A and E, as well as the state of increased body requirement in vitamins A and E and / or decrease in their intake: gastrectomy, diarrhea, steatorrhea, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, malabsorption syndrome, chronic cholestasis, cirrhosis, atresia of biliary pathways, obstructive jaundice, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, tropical sprue, infectious diseases (including chronic and cold), hemostalopia, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, inadequate and unbalanced nutrition (including parenteral nutrition), fast food smoking, alcoholism, long-term stress, reception of colestyramine, colestipol, mineral oils, neomycin, iron-containing products, with the appointment of a diet with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy (including prolific), lactation .
Peripheral neuropathy, necrotizing myopathy, abetalipoproteinemia.
Efficiency is not proven - atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, trophic tissue disorders, obliterating endarteritis.
Inside, regardless of food intake, daily 1 capsule / day; in / m - 1 ml / day. Duration of treatment - 20-40 days at intervals of 3-6 months. It is possible to conduct repeated courses.
Possible: allergic reactions (including skin rash), pain in the epigastric region, dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). With prolonged use in large doses, an exacerbation of cholelithiasis and chronic pancreatitis may occur.
Local reactions: with the / m introduction - soreness, infiltration, calcification of soft tissues.
Hypersensitivity, hypervitaminosis A and E, children's age (up to 14 years).
With caution: thyrotoxicosis, cholecystitis, conditions accompanied by increased permeability of blood vessels (CHF, chronic glomerulonephritis, etc.), liver cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, renal failure, alcoholism, pregnancy (especially I trimester), lactation period, advanced age, child age, hypoprothrombinemia (against a background of vitamin K deficiency - may increase with a dose of vitamin E more than 400 IU).
PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
Be wary appoint during pregnancy (especially I trimester), during lactation.
APPLICATION FOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
With caution: renal failure, conditions accompanied by increased permeability of blood vessels (CHF, chronic glomerulonephritis, etc.).
APPLICATION FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE FUNCTION OF KIDNEYS
With caution: cirrhosis of the liver, viral hepatitis.
APPLICATION FOR CHILDREN
Contraindicated in children under 14 years.
APPLICATION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS
With caution: the elderly.
To avoid the development of hypervitaminosis A and E, do not exceed recommended doses.
When using the drug should take into account the large content of vitamin A (100 thousand ME), and that it is a curative, not a preventive drug.
A diet with a high content of Se and sulfur-containing amino acids reduces the need for vitamin E.
Symptoms of acute overdose of retinol (vitamin A) (develop 6 hours after administration): hypervitaminosis A: in adults - drowsiness, lethargy, diplopia, dizziness, severe headache, nausea, severe vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, osteoporosis, gum bleeding, dryness and ulceration of the oral mucosa, exfoliation of the lips, skin (especially the palms), agitation, confusion.
Symptoms of chronic intoxication with retinol (vitamin A): anorexia, bone pain, cracks and dry skin, lips, dryness of the oral mucosa, gastralgia, vomiting, hyperthermia, asthenia, headache, photosensitivity, pollakiuria, nocturia, polyuria, irritability, prolapse hair, yellow-orange spots on the soles, palms, in the nasolabial triangle, hepatotoxic phenomena, increased intraocular pressure, oligomenorrhoea, portal hypertension, hemolytic anemia, changes in bone radiographs, court horns; fetotoxic phenomena: in humans - malformations of the urinary system, growth retardation, early closure of epiphyseal growth zones; in animals - developmental defects of the central nervous system, spine, thorax, heart, eyes, upper sky, urogenital system.
Symptoms of an overdose of tocopherol (vitamin E): when taken for a long period in doses of 400-800 units / day - blurred vision, dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, gastralgia, asthenia; when taking more than 800 units / day for a long period - an increased risk of bleeding in patients with hypovitaminosis K, a disorder of thyroid hormone metabolism, a sexual function disorder, thrombophlebitis, thromboembolism, necrotic colitis, sepsis, hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, renal failure, bleeding in the mesh a covering of an eye, a hemorrhagic stroke, an ascites.
Treatment: discontinuation of the drug; symptomatic therapy.
Retinol weakens the effect of calcium preparations, increases the risk of hypercalcemia.
Kolestyramine, colestipol, mineral oils, neomycin reduce the absorption of vitamins A and E (an increase in their dose may be required).
Oral contraceptives increase the concentration of retinol in plasma.
Isotretinoin increases the risk of retinol intoxication.
Simultaneous use of tetracycline and retinol in high doses (50 thousand AD and above) increases the risk of developing intracranial hypertension.
Tocopherol (vitamin E) enhances the effect of GCS, NSAIDs, antioxidants, increases efficacy and reduces the toxicity of vitamins A, D, cardiac glycosides. The appointment of vitamin E in high doses can cause vitamin A deficiency in the body.
Tocopherol (vitamin E) increases the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy (who have increased blood levels of lipid peroxidation products).
Simultaneous use of vitamin E at a dose of more than 400 units / day with anticoagulants (coumarin and indanedione derivatives) increases the risk of hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding.
The use of iron in high doses increases the oxidative processes in the body, which increases the need for vitamin E.