Description of the active substance:
This information is a reference and it is not enough that the drug has been prescribed by a doctor ..
Antimicrobial agent of a wide spectrum of action, belongs to the group of nitrofurans. Under the influence of nitrofurans, the respiratory chain and the cycle of tricarboxylic acids (Krebs cycle) are suppressed, as well as the inhibition of other biochemical processes of microorganisms, as a result of which their shell or cytoplasmic membrane is destroyed.
It is active against gram-positive cocci: Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp .; Gram-negative rods: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp .; protozoa: Lamblia intestinalis and other microorganisms resistant to antibiotics.
With respect to Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Aerobacter aerogenes, Bacterium citrovorum, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus morganii furazidine, in comparison with other nitrofurans, is more active.
For most bacteria, the bacteriostatic concentration ranges from 1: 100,000 to 1: 200,000. The bactericidal concentration is about 2 times greater.
As a result of the action of nitrofurans, microorganisms produce fewer toxins, so an improvement in the patient's general condition is possible even before the expressed suppression of microflora growth. Nitrofurans activate the immune system of the body: increase the complement titer and the ability of leukocytes to phagocytose microorganisms. Furazidine in therapeutic doses stimulates leukopoiesis.
Resistance to furazidine develops slowly and does not reach a high degree.
After oral administration, furazidine is absorbed from the small intestine by passive diffusion. Absorption of nitrofurans from the distal segment of the small intestine exceeds the absorption from the proximal and medial segments by 2 and 4 times, respectively (should be taken into account in the simultaneous treatment of urogenital infections and gastrointestinal diseases, in particular chronic enteritis). Nitrofurans are poorly absorbed from the large intestine.
C max in blood plasma is kept from 3 to 7 or 8 hours, in urine furazidine is detected after 3-4 hours.
In the body, furazidine is distributed evenly. Clinically important is the high content of the drug in the lymph (delaying the spread of infection through the lymphatic ways). In bile, its concentration is several times higher than in serum, and in the cerebrospinal fluid it is several times lower than in serum. In saliva, the content of furazidine is 30% of its serum concentration. The concentration of furazidine in the blood and tissues is relatively small, which is due to its rapid release, while the concentration in the urine is much higher than in the blood.
Metabolized to an insignificant extent (<10%).
It is excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion (85%), partially subjected to reverse reabsorption in tubules. At low concentrations of furazidine in the urine, the filtration and secretion process predominates, at high concentrations the secretion decreases and reabsorption increases. Furazidine, being a weak acid in acid urine does not dissociate, undergoes intensive reabsorption, which can enhance the development of systemic side effects. With an alkaline urine reaction, excretion of furazidine is enhanced.
With a decrease in the excretory function of the kidneys, the intensity of metabolism increases.
For oral administration: urogenital infections (acute cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis); gynecological infections; infections of the skin and soft tissues; severe infected burns; with the preventive purpose at urological operations (including a cystoscopy, a catheterization).
For external and topical application: infectious and inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity and pharynx, infected wounds.
Is taken orally after a meal. Adults - 50-100 mg 3 times / day, children over 3 years - 25-50 mg (not more than 5 mg / kg body weight) 3 times / day. The course of treatment is 7-10 days. If it is necessary to repeat the course of treatment, you should take a break for 10-15 days. To prevent infection (including urological operations, cystoscopy, catheterization) - 50 mg once for 30 minutes before the procedure.
Apply externally 2-3 times / day for washing the wound or wetting the dressing.
Apply locally 2-3 times / day in the form of rinses of the mouth and throat.
On the part of the digestive system: rarely - nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, impaired liver function.
From the side of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: rarely - headache, dizziness, polyneuritis.
Allergic reactions: rarely - skin rash (including papular rashes).
Chronic, severe renal failure; pregnancy; lactation period (breastfeeding); children under 4 years; hypersensitivity to furazidine and other nitrofurans.
PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
Contraindicated use of the drug during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding).
APPLICATION FOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
Contraindicated in chronic renal failure severe.
APPLICATION FOR CHILDREN
Contraindicated in childhood up to 3 years.
To reduce the likelihood of side effects, furazidine is washed down with a large amount of liquid.
If side effects occur, the application should be discontinued (toxic effects are more frequent in patients with reduced renal excretory function).
During the period of treatment, the patient is advised to refrain from drinking alcohol, since it may increase the side effects.
Do not take twice the dose to compensate for the missed dose.
Use with caution in the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
With the combination of furazidine with ristomycin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, the risk of oppression of hematopoiesis (should not be used simultaneously) increases.
It is not recommended to use drugs that can acidify urine (including ascorbic acid, calcium chloride) simultaneously with nitrofurans.