Description of the active substance:
This information is a reference and it is not enough that the drug has been prescribed by a doctor ..
Second-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Has a bacteriostatic effect only on Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including strains resistant to streptomycin, kanamycin, isoniazid, PASC and ethionamide. The mechanism of action is not exactly fixed. It seems that ethambutol, penetrating into mycobacteria, disrupts the synthesis of RNA. It is active only for intensively dividing bacteria. The resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to ethambutol develops relatively slowly.
After oral absorption from the digestive tract is 80%, the rest of the dose is excreted with feces unchanged. Food intake has little effect on absorption. At a single dose of 25 mg / kg C max, ethambutol in blood plasma is reached after 4 hours and is 5 Ојg / ml, after 24 hours the concentration is less than 1 Ојg / ml.
Ethambutol is distributed in most tissues, including the lungs, kidneys, red blood cells. Penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid with inflamed meninges.
Etambutol is partially metabolized in the liver to inactive aldehyde and dicarboxylic derivatives, which are excreted in the urine.
T 1/2 is 3-4 hours. It is mainly excreted in the urine unchanged, 8-15% - in the form of inactive metabolites.
All forms of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (as part of combination therapy).
Take inside at a dose of 15-25 mg / kg 1 time / day, or 50 mg / kg 2 times a week, or 25-30 mg / kg 3 times a week.
The maximum daily dose for adults is 2.5 mg.
From the side of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, depression, peripheral neuritis, retrobulbar neuritis, violations of color perception (mainly green and red), a decrease in the central and peripheral fields of vision, the emergence of cattle.
From the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite.
From the musculoskeletal system: arthritis.
Allergic reactions: skin rash.
Optic neuritis, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, inflammatory eye diseases, pregnancy, renal dysfunction, children under 13 years of age, hypersensitivity to ethambutol.
PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
Use during pregnancy is contraindicated.
Etambutol penetrates the placental barrier, excreted in breast milk.
In experimental studies , the teratogenic effect of ethambutol was established.
APPLICATION FOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
Contraindicated in the violation of kidney function.
APPLICATION FOR CHILDREN
Contraindicated in childhood to 13 years.
At the beginning of treatment, it is possible to increase cough, increase the amount of sputum.
Etambutol is used only in combination with other anti-TB drugs. In combination with isoniazid and rifampicin is highly effective in the treatment of tuberculosis.
When performing long-term therapy, it is necessary to regularly monitor the functions of vision, the picture of peripheral blood, as well as the functional state of the liver and kidneys.
With the simultaneous use of aluminum hydroxide, a decrease in the absorption of ethambutol from the gastrointestinal tract occurs.
There is evidence of a possible increase in optical neuropathy due to ethambutol, when it is used in combination with isoniazid.
Under the influence of ethambutol, a change in the metabolism of zinc is possible.