Lithium carbonate (lithii carbonas)


LITHIUM KARBONAT (Lithii carbonas).
     Synonyms : Kontemnol, Camcolit, Carbopax, Contemnol, Eskalith, Licarb, Lithane, Lithicarb, Lithium carbonicum, Lithizine, Lithobid, Lithomyl, Lithonate, Liticar, Lito, Neurolepsin, Plenur, Priadel, Teralithe and others.
     White light alkaline powder. It is soluble in water, alcohol in nerastvorim.
     Mechanism of psychotropic drugs lithium exposed to intensive study. It was found that lithium ions affect the transport of sodium ions in nerve and muscle cells, which acts as antagonist of lithium ions of sodium. Under the influence of lithium increases intracellular deamidization noradrenalina and fewer free noradrenalina, deystuyuschego to adrenoretseptory tissues in the brain. In high doses of lithium lowers serotonin in the brain. Lithium Ion increased neuronal sensitivity gippokampa and other areas of the brain to dopamine. Thus, lithium actively influence the underlying neurochemical processes in the brain that may underlie its therapeutic activity with mental illness.
     The most common drug lithium is lithium carbonate.
     Lithium Salts quickly imbibed reception inside; Dissotsiiruyut in the body. Lithium ions found in different organs and tissues after 2 to 4 h after a single admission preparation. There were cast from the body via the kidneys, and excretion of lithium correlates with the concentration in plasma, as well as the level of sodium and potassium in the blood. With a lack of sodium chloride in the body occurs in renal reabsorption of lithium Channel. With the introduction of high body sodium chloride excretion of lithium increases. In preparations of lithium treatment should therefore monitor the water-salt balance.
     Lithium crosses the placenta; Out of milk from lactating women.
     Key testimony to the use of drugs and lithium are delusional gipomaniakalnye of different genesis (especially with frequent attacks), prevention and treatment of affective illness (manic-depressive, shizoaffektivnogo, organic affective psychoses). There is evidence of the effectiveness of lithium not only endogenous psychosis, but also in patients with organic psychosis, epilepsy, the psychopaths with different speed fluctuations. Lithium has also applied drugs for the prevention and treatment of affective disorders in patients of chronic alcoholism.
     Assign inside after eating (to reduce irritants in the mucous membrane of the stomach). Doses should be set and monitored individually on the content of lithium in blood serum. Definition produced by flame photometry. The concentration of lithium in the plasma should not be below 0.6 or above 1, 2, 1, 6 mmol / l. In smaller concentrations effect usually does not, in higher concentrations may toksichesnie phenomenon. In the absence of a laboratory study dose govern based therapeutic effect and endurance, but it increases the risk of side effects.
     Lithium carbonate is usually used for medicinal purposes from 0.6 - 0.9 grams per day. With good endurance dose on the following day increased by 1, 2 grams daily adds to 0.3 prior to the daily dose of 1, 5, 2, 1 g, sometimes until 2, 4 g followed, however, to ensure that concentration lithium in the blood should not exceed 1 6 mmol / l. If the concentration of lithium in blood not determine appoint a drug dose over 2 1 g / day should not be.
     At doses greater than 2 g / day, it is not advisable to appoint more than one product to 2 weeks.
     Assign equal doses of medication throughout the day at 3 - 4 admission.
     After disappearing Manic symptoms daily dose is gradually reduced until 1, 2, 0,9 - 0,6 g. If after reducing the dose again showing signs of mania, the dose increases. After 7 to 10 days after they reach full therapeutic effect again gradually lower the dose, then drug waive or assign to continue preventive doses.
     For preventive medicine designate course from 0.3 - 0.6 g / day, then increased the dose to 0.9, 1, 2 g / day, at the same time that the concentration in the blood was 0.6 - 0.8 mmol / L, but no more than 1, 2 mmol / l.
     If lithium concentration in the blood exceeds 1, 2 mmol / l, the daily dose should be reduced.
     Lithium carbonate is appropriate to appoint a Neuroleptics and antidepressants.
     Side-effects are often observed at the beginning of treatment to a stable concentration of the drug in the blood and are in the tremor fingers, feeling tired, mud, itching, increased thirst, diarrhoeal events, diarrhea, heart rhythm irregularities, etc.
     Side-effects are usually observed, if the serum level of lithium in the more than 1, 6 mmol / l, but the high sensitivity of the individual can occur at lower concentrations. Early treatment of lithium concentration in the blood should be at least once a week later, with long intervals (every 2 weeks to 1 month).
     The advent of increased thirst and tremor fingertips should be seen as early warning signs of a drug overdose, which requires a suspension of the treatment (1 to 2 days) with the further use of the drug in a reduced daily intake.
     Please note that the violations kidney function lithium may slow down, and the concentration in the blood-rise.
     During treatment lithium carbonate possible temporary increase in body mass and the formation of goiter.
     In side-events recommended the appointment of sodium gidrokarbonata, eufillina, diakarba, urea. In the case of goitre designate thyroid hormones.
     The drug is contraindicated in violation of renal excretory function in cardiovascular disease events with decompensation and violations conductivity of pregnancy. The relative contraindications a thyroid dysfunction. Do not assign patients lithium carbonate in bessolevoy diet, because of the danger of increased drug reabsorption kidneys.
     Product : pills to 0.3 g-coated yellow, in a package of 100 pieces.
     Storage : in a dry place.

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