Kanamycin (kanamycinum)


KANAMITSIN (Kanamycinum).
     Antimicrobial substance produtsiruemoe radiant fungus Streptomyces kanamyceticus other related organisms.
     Referring to the antibiotic group aminoglikozidov.
     G Amino-3- dezoksi- glyukopiranozil- a D - (1-> 6) - O-[6-amino-6- dezoksi- a glyukopiranozil- D - (1-> 4) -2 - dezoksi -D- streptamin :
     Synonyms : Cantrex, Carmicina, Cristalomicina, Enterokanacin, Kamaxin, Kamynex, Kanacin, Kanamytrex, Kanoxin, Kantrex, Resitomycin, Tokomicina, Yapamicin and others.
     Kanamycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It has bactericidal activity against most gram and gram microorganisms, as well as the Acid Bacteria (including tuberculosis micobacterium). Force Mycobacteria tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin, PASK, isoniazid, and tuberculosis drugs (except florimitsina). Effective usually against microorganisms resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, levomitsetinu, but not for other drugs group neomycin (cross-resistance).
     It operates on the anaerobic bacteria, fungi, viruses and simple majority.
     Available in two salts : kanamycin sulfate (monosulfata) for admission into and kanamycin sulfate for parenteral use.
     Monosulfat kanamycin (Kanamycini monosulfas), a white crystalline powder with the smell and taste. The easily soluble in water, virtually nerastvovorim of alcohol. Resistant in alkali solutions.
     Kanamycin sulfate (Kanamycini sulfas) - powder or porous mass of white. Very easily soluble in water.
     Activity kanamycin expressed in weight or quantity of units (ED); 1 ED accordingly b coordinates activity kanamycin A 1 µ g (base).
     In intramuscular a kanamycin rapidly enters the blood and stored it in therapeutic concentrations of 8 - 12 hours; Getting through blood, peritoneal, virus fluid in the bronchial secret bile. As standard kanamitsa sulfate does not pass through the blood-brain barrier, but when brain nerve skins, the concentration of drugs in the spinal fluid can reach 30-60% of the concentration in the blood.
     Antibiotics crosses the placenta. Write kanamycin mainly kidneys (in a 24-48 h). If the kidney function is slowing down. Activity kanamycin in alkaline urine were significantly higher than in the acid. When administered medication poorly absorbed and presented mainly with faeces unchanged. Also poorly absorbed by inhalation of the aerosol, with a high concentration in the lungs and upper respiratory passages.
     Kanamycin sulfate used to treat septic infections disease (sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, septic endocarditis), infectious-inflammatory respiratory infections (pneumonia, empyema pleura, Abscess light, etc.), infection kidney and urinary tract, introducing complications aftercare period virus burns and other diseases caused primarily gram microorganisms resistant to other antibiotics, or a combination of micro gram and gram.
     Applied also kanamycin sulfate for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis and other bodies in resistance to TB drugs I and II and several other anti-media, except florimitsina (see).
     Enter kanamycin sulfate injection or intravenous drip (with the impossibility of intramuscular) and the cavity; Also used for inhalation of aerosol.
     For intramuscular use of kanamycin sulfate as a powder in the vial. Before introducing the content of a bottle (0.5 or 1 g) dissolved in 2 or 4 ml of sterile water for injections or 0,25 - 0,5% solution of novocaine.
     For intravenous drip of using kanamycin sulfate in the form of the ready in ampoules. A single dose of antibiotic (0.5 g) added to 200 ml of 5% glucose solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution and impose a speed of 60-80 drops per minute.
     When infection netuberkuleznoy etiology single dose kanamycin sulfate for intramuscular and intravenous adult is 0.5 grams daily 1 0 1 5 g (0.5 g each for 8-12 h). The highest daily dose of 2 g (1 g in 12 hours).
     Duration of treatment 5 to 7 days, depending on the severity and characteristics of a process.
     Children entering kanamycin sulfate only intramuscularly : up to 1 year appoint an average daily intake of 0.1 g of 1 to 5 years - 0.3 g, over five years - 0.3 - 0.5 g. The highest daily intake is 15 mg / kg. The daily dose divided into 2 - 3 introduction.
     When treating tuberculosis kanamycin sulfate impose one adult every day dose of 1 g, children under 15 mg / kg.
     Diluted introduce six days a week, 7-day - break. The number of cycles and the total duration of treatment determined by the stage and disease (1 or more months).
     When kidney failure pattern of kanamycin sulfate adjusted by reducing the dose or increase the interval between the introduction.
     To give cavity (chest, joint cavity) using 0.25% aqueous solution of kanamycin sulfate. Enter 10-50 ml. The daily dose should not exceed the dose for intramuscular injection. In peritoneal dialysis, 1 to 2 g kanamycin sulfate dissolved in 500 ml dializuyuschey liquid.
     In a spray solution using kanamycin sulfate in the light of tuberculosis and respiratory tract infection netuberkuleznoy etiology : 0,25-0,5 g drugs dissolve in the 3 - 5 ml isotonic sodium chloride solution or distilled water. Under the dose for adults 0.25 - 0.5 g, for detey5 mg / kg. Diluted introduce two times a day. Daily intake kanamycin sulfate 0,5-1, 0 g for adults, 15 mg / kg for children. The duration of treatment in acute 7 days, with chronic pneumonia-15 - 20 days, with tuberculosis, 1 month. and more.
     Kanamycin monosulfat apply only to the gastrointestinal tract infection (dysentery, dysenteric carrier, bacterial enterocolitis), by e genuine sensitivity to the microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, etc.), as well as for bowel disease in preparation for the operation of gastroenteric tract.
     The drug used in the form of tablets inside. The dose for adults is 0.5 - 0.75 g per reception. The daily dose of up to 3 g.
     Higher doses for adults inside : single 1 g daily 4 years
     Children nominate 50 mg / kg (with severe illness-to 75 mg / kg) per day (in receptions 4-6).
     The average duration of treatment 7 to 10 days.
     To rescue the bowel in pre-designated period inside one day before surgery and 1 g at 4 h (6 grams a day-dose higher than the daily dose prescribed State Pharmacopoeia), along with other antibacterial drugs, or over 3 per day; 1 st 0.5 g / day for every 4 h (daily dose of 3 g) and the subsequent 2-day and 1 g 4 times (only 4 grams).
     Kanamycin treatment to be carried out under close medical supervision. When injecting a drug may audible nerve inflammation (sometimes with irreversible hearing loss). The treatment to control audiometry (at least one per week). When the first signs of ototoksicheskogo (even little noise in the ears) kanamycin overturned. Because of the difficulty of defining a kanamycin hearing impaired children need to treat with great caution.
     Kanamycin can have toxic effects on the kidneys. Nefrotoksicheskie reaction (tsilindruriya, hypertensive, mikrogematuriya) more often in long-term use drugs and are usually quickly after its abolition. Research urine must be at least 1 in every 7 days. In the first manifestations nefrotoksicheskih drug overturned.
     In a parenteral (intravenous and especially intraoral) that can be nerve-muscle blockade (kurarepodobnoe effect). In the case of closure and oppressive breathing apparatus to enter Neostigmine (see) with atropine, if necessary, make IVL.
     In some cases, possible allergic reactions, parestezii breach of liver function.
     To reduce the side effects of calcium recommended to appoint pantotenat (see) on the 0.2 - 0.4 g, 2 times a day and ATF-1% solution of 1 - 2 ml intramuscularly.
     When administered in some cases there diarrhoeal phenomenon.
     Kanamycin is not suitable for pneumonia hearing nerve, violations of liver and kidney function (except tuberculosis losses). Do not allow appointments kanamycin with other big and nephrotoxic antibiotics (streptomycin, monomitsin, neomycin, florimitsin etc.).
     Kanimitsin can be no earlier than 10 to 12 days after treatment by antibiotics. It should not be applied kanamycin with furosemide and other diuretikami.
     For pregnant women, babies and children in the first month of life of kanamycin only emergencies.
     Method of issuance : kanamycin - monosulfat tablets to 0,125 and 0.25 g (125000 and 250000 ED); Kanamycin sulfate-in vials of 0.5 and 1 g (500,000 and 1 million ED), and 5% in injectable solution of 5 to 10 ml (containing, respectively, 0.25 and 0.5 g product).
     Storage : List B. In dry, the dark spot with a fine room temperature.
     Kanoksitsel (Canoxicelum Kanoxycelum) - poly (viscose) containing kanamycin. Available in various sizes as napkins.
     Contains 18 to 23 weight% kanamycin. Implemented as a local antibacterial gemostaticheskogo and money. When causing painful bleeding to stop bleeding from the small vessels. Napkins can be left in the wounds; Rassasyvayas slowly, it has prolonged antibacterial action.
     Product : napkins size H5 4; 5 H10; ZH13 1 and 10 cm H20 in hermetically ukuporennyh bottles.
     Storage : in the dark place at a temperature of not more than 10 'C.
     See also sponge antiseptic to kanamycin, Zhelplastan.

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